Anchialos the metropolis of Eastern Rumelia

Name - Human Geography
     The Aghialos is built on the peninsula, north of the Gulf Tower (Burgas) located on the outskirts of a large plain, which from the Byzantine era was called "plain Anchialos"and states in the north, south and west of the offshoots of the Great and Short Balkan.

     According to Pliny, Anchialos was from the nearby Apollo, the 6th century BC in place of an older Thracian city Messiah, while Strabo mentions it as "Aghiali, Polichnitos Apollonia. According to tradition, the ancient city was the site Palaiokastro where antiquities are preserved among the vines. Originally the town was named Ankhíalos, and Aghiali Anchialeia, while in Roman times became Oulpia.
     In the Byzantine era found the name Acholos and Aheloy to the city and for residents Achelinoi tis.Ton 8th century AD The city sank during earthquakes and rebuilt to786. The old city walls were reefs off the new city by making extremely risky approach from the sea.

Anchialos maintained compact Greek population during the Ottoman domination. According to Greek sources, in the 19th century had Ankhíalos 4,000 Greeks and Turks, 50 families, while at the end of the century and 20th archestou lived in the city a total of 5,800 Greeks 6,000 residents. After the anti-Greek persecutions of 1906, the migration of Greeks upset the ethnic composition of the population, since there remained only 383 Greek families with Bulgarian citizenship.



History

     The Ankhíalos conquered by the Turks in February 1453 and after the Fall of Constantinople fled and settled there several branches of prominent Byzantine families (Paleologos, Cantacuzenos, Duke, etc.), whose members distinguished themselves in commerce and were patrons of letters.
     In 1621, the city suffered great damage from Cossack raid, while in the early 19th century faced the danger of destruction and looting by irregular armed groups of Muslims. The rescue of the city and residents assigned to St. George, in honor of whom founded the monastery.

    In 1885, after the annexation of Eastern Rumelia to Bulgaria, the city of Anchialos know the first repressive measures against it in a bulgarian policy of the Greek population. Destroyed Greek educational and religious institutions are built and Bulgarian churches and schools.
     20 July tou1906, Bulgarian army was installed in the monastery of St. George on the pretext of maintaining order. On July 28, when the army withdrew, concentrated Bulgarian fanatic groups from surrounding areas, attacked the Greeks and began to destroy and burned down the town. Those who survived fled to other towns in the Ottoman territory, from where it departed for Greece.
     The refugees first settled in New Anchialos of Magnesia and Anchialiton second stream of refugees who came to Greece after 1919, settled in the neighborhood "Anchialos" in Thessaloniki.

Education
In the late 18th century, refers to the establishment of a public school in the Anchialos Hrisovergi Kouropalati, but the existence of the Greek school, must have been much palaioteri.Martyreitai that operated in 1703 Greek school. In 1851 the city operated Mutual and Greek school and in 1865 built a new building. In 1868, high school for girls was founded and runs the kindergarten. Even had it up and various clubs mostly educational association.

The Anchialos became bishop as early as the 2nd century AD The most important church was the Cathedral of the Archangels and the magnificent church of Panagia. Churches were also of St. Theodore and the Transfiguration of Christ, and there were many chapels. There was also the monastery of St. George, just 20 minutes from Anchialos. All were burned during the destruction of the city in 1906.

 

Economy  
The Anchialites heavily involved with viticulture. The vineyards in the valley stretching to the southwest of the city (about 3 million vines). Major grape varieties were adrianoupolitika, Zoumiatiko, sefkes, Sebastian, recruit, Mavrouli, Moscow, etc. The harvesters were making many good wines, raki and vinegar. Anchialos also produced two special wines: mouseledes (sweet wine) and pilino (a kind of retsina, sour wine which put wormwood). The harvest was after 14 September and was fair, attended by villagers from the surrounding areas.
The Gkernouvklides, Turks from the surrounding villages, carrying their grapes in the winepress Anchialos with large Arab they dragged under the water buffalo and drum sounds.
When they reached the city, farmers were incense the grapes and warehouses, where they had blessing.
     Each February 1, the feast of St. Tryphon, after the Mass, all Anchialites took holy water and went out to sprinkle the vines to have good fruiting.
    The growers were about 80% of the population of the city. Fishing and farming were limited compared to the Sozopol and Nesebar, but efficient and there were famous salt lakes and salt was the main product. Before developing the Port Tower and connected by rail with the interior of Bulgaria Ankhíalos was the main port of export and import all of Southern Bulgaria.